Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Episode 75: Bite The Dust Transcript

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Shauna:                                00:00                     Welcome to Bunny trails, a whimsical adventure of idioms and other turns of phrase. I'm Shauna Harrison
Dan:                                       00:05                     and I'm Dan Pugh. Every Wednesday we take an idiom or other turn of phrase and try to tell the story from its entry to the English language to how it's used today. Shauna, do you know what CPR is?
Shauna:                                00:17                     I do. I, okay, hold on. I know what it stands for. It is a cardio pulmonary resuscitation,
Dan:                                       00:25                     That's Right. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. So about 10 years ago we had memes about CPR and humming songs to help keep practicing doing the chest compressions at the right tempo. And uh, the most popular one was staying alive by the Bee Gees, you know, because it's a positive message. And uh, if you were kind of humming that in your head while you did it while you were practicing, then you, it, it was a good hundred beat per minute type song. And at the time that's what they were saying is, um, you know, a hundred, a hundred beats per minute. Although I think now they just say push hard and fast in the center of the chest. Uh, but this was back when they were trying to be very specific and particular about a thing that um, people might never do in their whole life. I've done it lots, but you know, as a paramedic that was sort of a thing that sometimes we did. But if you have a morbid sense of humor, you could also have a different song. Another one bites the dust by queen also at the same tempo.
Shauna:                                01:23                     I really like, I would do that one just because I like that song more.
Dan:                                       01:27                     It is, well I, well yes I do like that song more, but it is definitely a more morbid song to sing. Well you're trying to keep someone alive. But if you're not a native English speaker, the title may confuse you. Like why is another one bites the dust a morbid depiction of trying to save someone's life? Uh, and so we're going to help you out this week cause this week we're going to talk about bite the dust.
Shauna:                                01:55                     I'm excited. That's awesome.
Dan:                                       01:57                     So the Oxford English dictionary has the meaning of bite the dust as to fall in death or to die. So the dark humor that comes from this song choice is that you're singing, you're basically singing a song about death while you're trying to save someone. And that would be where the dark humor of that comes from. Like when you explain it like that, it's not funny, but in the moment or if you're someone who has kind of a dark or what we would call twisted sense of humor, uh, then that would be, uh, outside of the norm and that would be a a, that would be potentially funny. Anyway, explaining jokes never goes well, the, uh, the Oxford English dictionary also has an alternate definition of bite the dust as to fall to the ground, especially to fall wounded or slain. And the Cambridge dictionary points out that bite the dust can also mean to end in failure. They use the example, "his career bit the dust when he lost his job. "
Shauna:                                02:55                     All right. So I mean, I guess still in that, in that I still even interpret that as like basically died. Like cause but it was his career, not him, you know?
Dan:                                       03:04                     Right, right. Yes, absolutely. And so this is just, it is still like the death of something, but instead of the death of a person, now it's the death of a thing. But we don't normally say things died because we generally reserve die for a living entity. And if it was ever living, then it can't have died. Or at least that would be like under a literal definition. So these other definitions kind of capture that figurative component. But as far as, as far as the ending in failure, although, uh, there's, there's, it's easy to see because not only if it ended in failure, it died, but it also, um, can tie back to that alternate definition of bite the dust, the to fall to the ground or fall wounded or slain. Because in that case, if you fall in wounded or slain, you may have failed in your task of warring.
Dan:                                       03:52                     What's it called when you go to war? I mean, I'm sure there's some sort of word for it.
Shauna:                                03:57                     Battling?
Dan:                                       03:59                     Warring? Fighting? Fighting. That was an easy one.
Shauna:                                04:02                     Oh man, guys, wow.
Dan:                                       04:03                     We do a word history podcast. Whew. Any idea when this phrase may have entered the English lexicon?
Shauna:                                04:11                     Okay. So I have some, some former knowledge of this, but also I, I skipped ahead in the, in the thing, the,
Dan:                                       04:19                     Oh, in the show notes that are available on Patreon for all of our $1 a month or more patrons.
Shauna:                                04:25                     But, but don't skip ahead. It's way more fun if you guess on your own.
Dan:                                       04:28                     I don't release them until after the episode. Okay. It's not like I'm like "here everyone, here is the show notes for that was that we're going to do in three weeks"
Shauna:                                04:35                     Oh, right. No. Uh, okay. Fair enough.
Dan:                                       04:39                     All right, so there's a case to be made that this may have been used, uh, in the Greek as early as the seven hundreds. Uh, and we will circle back to the Greek a little later in the show. But let's start with the first time we actually can find evidence for our phrase in English. And that was actually in, uh, a what was called a new dictionary, French and English. So this is a French to English dictionary that is working through, um, how you would say something from their native tongue and in French into English. And this is from Bassett publishing in 1677. Cool. And do they have a French phrase that I cannot say because I just, my tongue just does not do that. Shauna, would you do the honors please?
Shauna:                                05:28                     Mordre la pouffiere, étre aterré, vaincu, tué
Shauna:                                05:34                     That's the whole thing,
Dan:                                       05:35                     which it says to bite the dust to fall, vanquished or slain to the ground.
Shauna:                                05:41                     Okay. That, that's high school French guys. So just, you know, forgive me.
Dan:                                       05:46                     Which was better than mine. Listen, if I try and say it with any sort of like, if I even try and say French, it just sounds like I'm making fun of someone. So I just, I just can't, I don't, I can't do accents. I can't do foreign languages, foreign language. I can't do world languages. So as if, as if English is the standard or something. What a ridiculous thing. All right, so, but, but that's, so that's right there. They, they specifically use to bite the dust in 1677 as a phrase that this would've been the English equivalent to whatever they just said in French.
Shauna:                                06:20                     It's really cool.
Dan:                                       06:20                     Yeah. So we know that it is, was in the, the spoken lexicon at least in 1677, uh, and, and potentially earlier. Now the next time that I found it in, in print at all. And the first time that I saw it in a work, uh, was in a 1728 English translation of François Fénelon's
Shauna:                                06:43                     Les Aventures de Télémaque.
Dan:                                       06:46                     Thank you High school French. And in this, uh, the translation into English said, "not being able to reach the divine old man had lanced his darts on several Pylians, and made them bite the dust".
Dan:                                       06:59                     So we see it there. I mean, it's just being used as a standard phrase at this point, even in 1728, but that's the first time that I could find it actually used in a publication, um, a work of, of writing. So, and, and this is always the struggle anytime we're trying to research the history of words is that it's very difficult to capture the history of words through a spoken medium because so many, I mean, even if we, even if we remember things fairly well, and even if it was a very popular phrase, uh, the thing about idioms is that as those idioms change over time, we're only relaying the idioms as we understand it now.
Dan:                                       07:40                     So when a oral tradition, we would lose potentially lose some of those, uh, some of the stylings and the way it was actually used. So it's good to have it in print, but one we haven't been doing print for like, you know, just too terribly long, not in a mass consumed way that, uh, someone like you or I would be able to research and find information about. Uh, and two, uh, it's, it's not always, I'm not, I don't, I just established that I don't do other languages very well. I'm learning, but it's not, it's not my thing. So, uh, I'm a researcher so I, I can dig in and find the information, but I can't always interpret, uh, like middle English cause I'm like, I don't know what that says. I have to call someone who does that to help out with that. I also found another work in 17, 28, so I don't want to say, I guess I said the first time I saw it was in François' piece, there is his translation or in the translation of François' piece.
Dan:                                       08:37                     But I also want to point out that there is another book that came out also in 17, 28, uh, by GB Basile and this is called, The Pentamerone. And this was actually a selection of several stories. And one of the things that they said in here was, "is it for a girl to teach her father forsooth? Have done I say, and don't drive the mustard up into my nose ;for if I lay these hands upon you, I'll not leave a whole bone in your skin and I'll make you bite the dust."
Dan:                                       09:08                     Okay. First of all, child abuse is bad obviously, but uh, yeah. In this case, they're, they're specifically using the phrase, bite the dust in that to to die or to make them fall wounded. Uh, that's the whole purpose of this for phrase, which is like super not cool. But also, you know, it was very clearly in the language at this point.
Dan:                                       09:29                     In Tobias George Smollett’s 1749 translation of Alain René Le Sage · The adventures of Gil Blas of Santillane where they wrote, "we made two of them bite the dust and the others but take themselves to flight."
Shauna:                                09:46                     Maybe, they like hunting birds. So they killed two of them and then the others left.
Dan:                                       09:52                     Maybe they were bird hunting or bird hunting or bird hunting. I love, I love that interpretation. They were just bird hunting. What if, what if they were hunting rocks that were rolling down the Hill so that nothing had to die.
Shauna:                                10:05                     That's good. That's better. I like that.
Dan:                                       10:09                     Another example from the November 7th, 1792 edition of the Gazette of the United States, this was out of New York and it spoke of a particular scene that had recently happened during the French revolution. And this kind of blew my mind a little bit, and I like, we have these historical warm holes and these historical events that happen. And I don't know why, but for some reason in my brain, the French revolution didn't happen at a time that we had American newspapers, but it did, uh, it was happening along in the early days of America, uh, after they had, you know, after the revolutionary war and such.
Dan:                                       10:46                     So, cause it happened in the 1780s, 1790.
Shauna:                                10:49                     That's weird.
Dan:                                       10:50                     But for whatever reason, when I was reading this, uh, and I was just like, that sounds a lot like, Oh, I had to look it up. But I'm like, is that, is something like we're talking about the French revolution that's happening, you know, in another country from America standpoint, but, uh, in a newspaper that I'm reading right now on, on the library of Congress's website. So it was very interesting to me and I thought that that was pretty cool. But, uh, so this is what the piece says, "the palace gate leading to the terrace was obstructed by heaps of dead, almost naked. And is if still biting the dust, their hands grasped in rage to have fallen by the sword of the people."
Shauna:                                11:30                     Wow.
Dan:                                       11:32                     Yeah. It has a, it has all the S' are F's in this timeframe. And so it takes my brain a half a second to to process as I read it.
Shauna:                                11:39                     and the script is kind of odd. So yeah.
Dan:                                       11:44                     Yeah. Well and, and the microfilm, that was what was digitized also, you know, wasn't in the best shape from 1792 that's actually in pretty good shape. I've seen, I've seen more recent stuff is way worse. So this is actually, it's not too bad.
Dan:                                       11:57                     I want to move into the 18 hundreds now. And uh, and this is an example of seeing bite the dust being used as fall to the ground rather than dying here. And so this is from Charles John Anderson in his work Lake Ngami, or, Explorations and discoveries during four years' wanderings in the wilds of south western Africa. Again, 1856 "in the course of a half an hour, he had twice bitten the dust."
Shauna:                                12:24                     Ah, okay.
Dan:                                       12:24                     Yeah. So in this case, he's using the fallen down thing. And I, until I read this particular one, I couldn't think of a time when I had used bite the dust or bit the dust as to mean falling down on when I had read the original, when I read the first definitions and that cause that was an alternate and I was like, I can't think of a time I've used that.
Dan:                                       12:44                     But then reading this, uh, when, when he said he in the course of half an hour, he had twice bitten the dust. And when I couple that with the title, uh, which the subtitle is, is during four years wandering in the wilds of South Western Africa and suddenly hiking came to mind and or climbing those types of things. And then I had a flood of memories of times that I had fallen down in specifically think about, I think I used the phrase or heard the phrase used about me. I mean like, Oh, I bit the dust or man, I bit the dust like six times on there. So be careful, you know, and so then suddenly I do remember having used it in that setting and it would make total and perfect sense if somebody, if I, even if I hadn't used it and someone had said it, I would know exactly what they mean, which is what an idiom does. It's something that a native speaker would, would rather intuitively understand. And a non native speaker, speaker may not.
Shauna:                                13:41                     Uh, yeah, definitely. I, I didn't until you read that passage or you know, had this here, I didn't, didn't remember that either. But did recall like, as a kid that there were times when either running around in the yard or like you said, hiking or out, you know, doing things where somebody falls down and, and that, that's the phrase that I would hear used. Oh, he bit the dust. You know.
Dan:                                       14:01                     So in the 1890s, Samuel Butler translated Homer's, the Iliad, uh, which contains the line, "grant that my sword may Pierce the shirt of Hector about his heart and that full, many of his comrades may bite the dust as they fall, dying around him."
Dan:                                       14:16                     So the Illiad was written in seven, seven hundreds. And, um, this is a good example of the differences between what are the original Greek say. And the Greek definitely had a phrase that was close to this, uh, and it, that meant the same thing. So are the origins of this phrase definitely at least come from from the Greek, um, and, and potentially earlier than that, cause we, we also saw in, in, in French, uh, but we, we, we don't know that, uh, the term was exactly translated like that. So here's a, an example from AT Murray's translation, which is a bit more literal from the Greek that says "fall headlong into the dust and bite the earth."
Shauna:                                14:56                     Gotcha. I mean, that's pretty close.
Dan:                                       14:58                     It is. It is pretty close. So these are a couple of different translations of the Iliad here. Uh, which I think goes to show that the concept of this, uh, a falling face down to the ground upon death has been around, at least since Homer's time in the seven hundreds. Uh, but we can't quite claim our phrase is being from the same timeframe because you know, the translation between works. So we know this concept's been here for sure. And if you wanted to say that this phrase has been around, or the concept of this phrase has been around since the seven hundreds, I think you'd be absolutely right to do so. Uh, but we can't be confident it was in somewhat popular spoken language until the 16 hundreds, because we saw it show up in that French English dictionary in 1677.
Shauna:                                15:41                     This week's episode is sponsored by our patrons. Bunny trails is and always will be free, but we are only able to make this content because of the awesome support of our patrons, including Pat Rowe and Mary Lopez. Because of Pat, Mary, and many others, you don't have to pay a dime to enjoy bunny trails week after week. But even though Dan and I volunteer our time, there are still costs to making this show, including hosting fees, transcription costs, equipment maintenance, domain fees, and more. So if you are in a financially stable place and would like to support this educational art form, we encourage you to check out the options at or you can link to it from our website, in addition to our patrons, we want to thank everyone who has been talking about the show on social media this past week, including Rosie Chomet, Cutting Class podcast, Ad free talk, Grizzle and fluff, Words for Granted Podcast, Lingpods, bacon dad, your brain on facts pod, Jeremy Biltz, the Lexitexture podcast and more.
Dan:                                       16:49                     My next example is from 1905 and I absolutely love this example because it's an anti president Roosevelt chant and it was targeted at the bachelors trust club in Chicago and this is out of the Omaha daily be April 2nd, 1905 "here's to Teddy grand trust Buster smashes new ones every day. Let beef and standard heat his bluster, the bachelor trust has come to stay for. Here's the trust he cannot bust. Let Cupid aid him as he may old JDR may bite the dust, but BTC has come to stay."
Shauna:                                17:24                     Wow.
Dan:                                       17:25                     And it, and it goes on to point out the shameful ways of the bachelors trust club and how they love federal interference in everyone else's affairs, but they just don't like it in their own. Ah, and I thought this was interesting because this meant it was circulated to a wide audience, as an advertisement because like this is out of Chicago, but it was the Omaha, Nebraska newspaper. So it was, yeah, they pushed it out into probably everybody within the region. And I'm sure you know across the Telo type telegram, tell a graph, tell us something.
Shauna:                                18:03                     Oh my.
Dan:                                       18:04                     Yeah. I don't know. I man, I have learned this like six or seven times, but I still can't. It's telegram.
Shauna:                                18:11                     yeah, cause the Telegraph is the machine,
Dan:                                       18:16                     Yeah, you send a telegram over a telegraph. I just, for whatever reason, that is not intuitive to my brain and I have to stop and think about it.
Dan:                                       18:22                     In 1940 as part of a marketing campaign for Pinocchio, Walt Disney studios put out a series of newspaper strips featuring Jimminy cricket, and that was the little cricket guy that was Pinocchio's conscience in the movie. Harriett Eager Davis wrote the words to the strips and I'll read a small portion of this rhyming prose from the evening star out of Washington DC. July 14th, 1940 "So fast the lightning dash was one, the crowd looked on in wonder. They thought the war was just an act, and never guessed their blunder. Stromboli yelling loud and long, was running like a quitter. Those bugs had made him bite the dust, and Oh the taste was bitter. Yet on they hopped and never stopped, their valorous endeavor. Fleabitis! Was their battle cry, we'll cook your goose forever.
Shauna:                                19:10                     That is like, okay. So I love the, the whole phrase like everything there, the way it's written. But um, man, that's a little bit of a little bit of a message going on there.
Dan:                                       19:21                     Yeah. This was interesting because this, this campaign kept going on for a while because, and I don't know how long movies would have had a run back in the 1940s. It's not really my area of expertise. Uh, but the movie came out in February of 1940 and these were running in the papers in July of 1940. So they're continuing to have this, uh, trying to keep it in the public consciousness concept going on. And I think it, it basically, it was like a series. It wasn't, it wasn't quite like comic strips. Like we would think of them today. There was some illustrations and those were done by Walt Disney studios. But, uh, all of the words were written by, uh, Harriet eager Davis. And so, uh, and it is, and they, and they credit her in, in the newspaper article, which is weird because in the 1940s, we generally didn't credit women for their work.
Dan:                                       20:11                     So cool for them, I guess. Good job, Walt Disney studios for giving credit where credit was due, although they just say the illustrations were done by Walt Disney studios, but maybe that means cause they were done by a lot of people. We mentioned this at the top of the show, but it's worth another mention here. Queen has a song called another one bites the dust. It's off of the 1980 album, the game, and it was written by the bass guitarist John deacon. The lyrics begin.:
Dan:                                       20:36                     Steve walks warily down the street, With the brim pulled way down low Ain't no sound but the sound of his feet, Machine guns ready to go Are you ready, Are you ready for this Are you hanging on the edge of your seat Out of the doorway the bullets rip To the sound of the beat And then he goes on to say, another one bites the dust , another one gone, and another one gone , Another one bites the dust .
Shauna:                                20:58                     yeah. I'm going to say here, you can tell, um, that this is written by a bass guitarist because the song doesn't start with those lyrics. It starts with, budda dump dump dump
Dan:                                       21:08                     Okay. That's a good point. That's a good point. And a, a, that would be a bass guitarist that just pointed that out to me. So
Shauna:                                21:16                     Also you can hear like just reading these lyrics, you can hear the beat.
Dan:                                       21:20                     Oh yeah. Well that's the whole thing. Cause it's to the sound of the beat. I mean like that's the whole, that bum bum.
Dan:                                       21:26                     There's another song called bite the dust. This is from the pussycat dolls and it's off the 2005 album PCD, which I assume stands for pussycat dolls, but I don't know. And uh, they, the lyrics here say:
Dan:                                       21:38                     Bite the dust Trust me, anything you can do I can do better than you Bite the dust Some things really impossible You're no exception to rules Bite the dust How many times I go to tell you? People need to see you Bite the dust You see, I'm really helping you I'm keeping you from looking a fool She's got a plan to have my man She's going to have to deal with me
Shauna:                                22:02                     My goodness. So this is like aggressive. This is now an action.
Dan:                                       22:06                     Have you ever heard the pussycat dolls"
Shauna:                                22:08                     Well, you know, I listened to them, but it was a little bit after my angsty ragey time of my life. So, you know, I enjoyed it. I was like, yeah, I totally would've listened to that when I was like, you know, a teen.
Dan:                                       22:18                     Yeah, in 2005 you had two kids.
Shauna:                                22:20                     Right, exactly. I wasn't all, I wasn't all that up. Quite the same thing. Yeah.
Dan:                                       22:25                     So here's the very interesting movie that I ran across and it's a 2013 film, uh, and it's a Russian film called bite the dust, uh, and it was, uh, screened out of competition at the 2013 Cannes film festival. It's a touching comedy drama with a subversive undercurrent of humorous criticism of the Russian government and modern Russian mores. They said it was sparsely but beautifully filmed. And this was directed by Taisia Igumentseva. "The handful of inhabitants of a tiny and isolated contemporary Russian rural village receives the news from state media that the 90% of humanity is about to perish due to a coronal mass ejection. The old man of the village doesn't believe the news ("But the president said so!" "Ah, who cares what he says. That's his job, to say stuff!"), but nonetheless the village prepares one last party as they await the apocalypse, a party at which all the secret thoughts and desires of the villagers will be revealed and manifested in the belief that the end is nigh."
Shauna:                                23:29                     I mean, so end of the world like,
Dan:                                       23:33                     yeah, it's an apocalyptic movie, but it really plays on the, and I don't know if the world actually ends there. I would imagine that if it screened at Cannes, you would not actually see that because that would not be, that would be the motivation. It wouldn't be important. So they probably wouldn't show that and you would never know.
Shauna:                                23:50                     But that's cool. I like the concept.
Dan:                                       23:52                     Yeah, it's a good, it's a good one. There's also a, a, another one bites the dust, which is a novel by Chris Marie Green. Uh, and this is a Jensen Murphy novel and it says, uh, this is by penguin random house. Jensen Murphy is back in this spooky sequel to Only the Good Die Young. Here's the synopsis from Penguin's website.
Dan:                                       24:11                     "Some people think that ghosts are spirits that refuse to go to the other side because they have unfinished business. Take my word—that’s true. I should know. I’m a ghost. I was an ordinary eighties California girl, dead before my time, until psychic Amanda Lee Minter pulled me out of the time loop where I was reliving my death over and over. Now I’m Jensen Murphy, Ghost for Hire. I decided to put my spooky talents to use in helping Amanda Lee track down bad guys and killers (including my own). It’s taken time to figure out exactly how that will work (our first case was definitely a learning experience for all involved), so when a young woman asks Amanda Lee for help convincing her best friend to leave a dangerously hot-tempered boyfriend, I’m ready and willing to use our collective powers on her behalf. But some people are dangerous not only to the living—especially when there are darker forces involved…."
Shauna:                                25:05                     Okay. That's really cool. I like this concept cause usually you know, it's like the, the angry ghost seeking retribution. But this one's more like just now I'm a private detective,
Dan:                                       25:15                     right? It's, it's kind of Dresden files esque but with ghosts.
Shauna:                                25:20                     That's cool. I like it.
Dan:                                       25:21                     Yeah. Okay. I want to take a quick look at Twitter to see how bite the dust is faring today. Uh, and from user Scooby route 99 and respond to the planter's peanut mascot. Mr peanut having died in the latest marketing campaign and they are treating it like a real death in social media. So I'm gonna read his tweet, but anytime I say the word heck, you should assume Scooby rule 99 said the F word and this was, he's responding to this tweet by the @MrPeanut account, which now says the estate of mr peanut. And it was a picture that says in memory of mr peanut 1916 to 2020 "it is with heavy hearts that we confirmed that mr peanut has died at 104 in the ultimate selfless act. He sacrificed himself to save his friends when they needed him most. Please pay your respects with #RIPeanut.
Shauna:                                26:13                     Clever.
Dan:                                       26:13                     Yes. So @ScoobyRoo99's response, "How the heck did a hecking PEANUT bite the dust? And all the brands re-tweeting this? This is almost weirder than that one time IHOP fake changed its name."
Shauna:                                26:26                     That's like, this is awesome. I love so much.
Dan:                                       26:29                     I am like, listen, we are all @ScoobyRoo99 right now. Every one of us, we're all like, what is going on? Stop it.
Shauna:                                26:38                     Rest in peanut.
Dan:                                       26:39                     Rest in peanut. All right, so to finish up, uh, I wanna I wanna mention a new idiom I learned about while I was researching this phrase. Um, and it was "to throw dust in the eyes of" which according to the Oxford English dictionary means to confuse, mislead or dupe by making blind to the actual facts of the case.
Dan:                                       26:59                     And blind was in little air quotes things. Well, it wasn't air quotes. It was an actual, uh, single quotes.
Shauna:                                27:04                     It was in actual quotations?!
Dan:                                       27:04                     That, well, it wasn't even a, it wasn't like the double quote. It was a single quote. But yeah, they, they definitely used it.
Shauna:                                27:10                     Oh right, to indicate figuartive or...
Dan:                                       27:10                     Right. So to make blind to the actual facts of the case. But I did air quotes, so I said air quotes, but I did air quotes wrong cause I did it with two fingers instead of one. Oh man. Anyway, so to use, to throw dust in the eyes of in a sentence. I'll take this example from Benjamin Franklin circa 1767 and he wrote, "it required a long discourse to throw dust in the eyes of common sense."
Shauna:                                27:33                     You know, he never said anything very simply is all I'm going to say. Um, yeah.
Dan:                                       27:41                     Uh, yeah, Benjamin Franklin like to do most of his work in a Tavern and so I think he and I would have got along just fine.
Shauna:                                27:47                     Definitely.
Dan:                                       27:48                     Well that's about all the time we've got this week. Thanks again to everyone for sharing the show on Twitter or your social media outlet of choice. Keep telling your friends and family about the show and if you're able to support our educational show with a monthly monetary amount, please check us out on Patreon
Shauna:                                28:06                     If you haven't heard, we've started putting up our episodes from season three on YouTube. It's nothing different from what you get on the podcast feed. It's just another place for you to get the show. It's basically one big audiogram, and if that's your thing, you should check it out. Thanks again to our awesome patrons for making the show possible and thanks to you for joining us. We'll talk to you again next week. And until then, remember,
Together:                            28:30                     words belong to their users.

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