Wednesday, August 7, 2019

Episode 57: Civil War Slang Transcript

Click on “Read More” for the full transcript.

We used Temi to auto transcribe this, then Dan went through and checked it based on the show notes. He tried really hard on it, but this kind of stuff isn't his specialty. So if you notice anything confusing, please comment on this post so Dan can look at it and clarify anything.

Shauna:                               00:00                    Welcome to bunny trails, a whimsical adventure of idioms and other turns of phrase. I'm Shanua Harrison
Dan:                                     00:05                    and I'm Dan Pugh. Usually we delve into the origin and history of one specific idiom or other turn of phrase and discuss how it's been used over time. But occasionally we like to take a group of phrases that doesn't have enough information for one show, but we give you a little bit of background about each of them. We usually do this through a theme, including our past themes like weddings and theaters. This week we're coming to you on location from the beautiful borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to talk about American civil war slang. The audio quality of this episode just be forewarned might be a little different. We're sitting in a civil war era house and the street is very close, unlike our usual recording studio, and so you will hear some background noise from time to time,
Shauna:                               00:52                    maybe even a few tours or something like that going by. Yeah, so it was like 1860s they weren't real worried about recording acoustic quality, so you know.
Dan:                                     01:02                    Yeah, no, that's fair.
Shauna:                               01:03                    It wasn't a priority.
Dan:                                     01:05                    The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1st through third 1863 in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and this was by the union and the confederate forces during the American civil war. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the wars turning point basically is the bloodiest battle of the bloodiest war in American history.
Shauna:                               01:28                    It's crazy, like it's it really intense experience to be here and see some of this stuff firsthand.
Dan:                                     01:33                    Yeah, it absolutely has been, but enough downers. Let's jump right into the phrases. So the first one I'm going to use is come the gum game, and this is a phrase that I've never heard before.
Shauna:                               01:44                    Me either.
Dan:                                     01:44                    I think it's completely fallen out of favor now. During the civil war Private James Snell wrote in his diary, "the rebels tried to come a gum game on us. The next entry indicates that the confederates were trying to make snells regiment believe that they are retreating when they were not. This is by a paper from Jay Monhagan called civil war slang and humor. Monhagan notes that this is one of the many idioms used by soldiers in the civil war, which is completely evaporated from modern speech.
Shauna:                               02:12                    Crazy.
Dan:                                     02:13                    The Oxford English dictionary defines gum game or come the gum game as "a slang or a trick or a dodge". And we'll see this... we see this oftentimes it with phrases in any case that the general public uses the phrase one way and uh, soldiers use it in a slightly different way. Yes. Especially during war. And we'll see a couple more examples of that as well. But here it's, it's still kind of the same thing, uh, a trick or a dodge. But for soldiers they used it specifically when someone was, was intentionally trying to pull the wool over their eyes so to speak,
Shauna:                               02:48                    Almost like a strategy type comment.
Dan:                                     02:50                    Right. Whereas in the general population, there didn't have to be malicious intent for it to be used. Gotcha. The first time we saw it was in 1840 so it was a relatively newer phrase that we'd heard. And when someone used the phrase, and it's specifically "I've come the gum game over you" in a speech. We also see it in several other, uh, examples throughout the civil war timeframe. We see it in the Idaho World in the May 26th, 1866 edition. This is out of Idaho city, Idaho. And that was a territory, not a state at that point. When it says, "a speck of nose, like a wart head as bald as a squash and no place to hitch a waterfall, a mouth just suited to come the gum game and chew milk. Oh dear. You should hear her sing. "
Dan:                                     03:40                    So they're talking about a person who, uh, who has a velvety voice but as also well-suited to get you to go along and to trick you and do get you to be very manipulative or influential, whichever way the person wanted to go. In 1871, Edward Eggleston in the Hoosier Schoolmaster wrote, "now looky here, you don't come know gum games over me". Nice. And we see it in the Libson Star, which is out of the Dakota territory, September 18th, 1885 where they said "they tried to come the gum game on me down in Pennsylvania, but I came out ahead." Nice. I don't believe there was much love loss between territories in the West that were not a part of the United States at the time and duplicitous efforts of Americans, which is sort of been our calling card for the entirety of the existence of the nation.
Dan:                                     04:40                    So in the Dallas Daily Herald, November 20th, 1886 "he got it and the two skinned out, the grocer set down in a tub of onions to think it over. And when he became satisfied that it was a gum game to beat him and that the two men were confederates, he rose up and kicked a dozen washboards sky high and mark the price of strawberries up 4 cents per quart". Wow. So in this case, uh, he got, he got played and then got frustrated about it once he realized it. Now the phrase seems to have fallen out of favor in the early 19 hundreds with one of the last instances I could find in print coming in January, 1910 this is January eight out of the Coleville examiner, which is Coleville Washington, "isn't it? Some kind of gum game to get money out of you. Gum Game? Gum game on me? Bowser!", And this, they were Bowser was the one talking and asking if this was some kind of a gum game and the other one was incredulous that someone could trick them in any way.
Dan:                                     05:36                    Gotcha. All right, so the next phrase I want to talk about is acknowledge the corn, and this is a, this was used during the civil war and there's a really fascinating phrase. It means to confess or acknowledge a charge, imputation or failure. Sometimes we see it acknowledge the corn. Sometimes we see it, admit the corn. Sometimes we see a confess the corn. This is a rocky beginning story, but the best that we have is from a newspaper where they were recounting the likely origin story of this. Okay. This phrase is said to have originated in Congress. And this, according to a story in the Pascagoula Democrat star out of Mississippi dated November 3rd, 1882 it is said to have originated in 1828 during the session of Congress. So Andrew Stewart, which is a congressman from Pennsylvania, claimed Kentucky and several other states were sending their haystacks, cornfields and fodder to his state.
Dan:                                     06:34                    The Congressman from Kentucky, Charles Wycliffe took issue with this and said they don't send those things. So when somebody asks what they did send, he said, we send hugs and we send animals. And a typical congressional conversation ensued where they were back and forth about different things. Um, and where Wycliff admitted that the hogs are fed about 30 bushels of corn each to fatten them up. Uh, which, uh, then as Congress is much to this day, it's a showmanship and brinksmanship thing and not about actually getting anything done. So at that point he says, "then you put those 30 bushels into the shape of a hog and make it walk off the eastern market." So at this point, the Kentucky Congressman realized he didn't want to keep arguing more and he says, "Mr Speaker, I acknowledge the corn. "
Dan:                                     07:20                    So since then I acknowledge the corn and later confessed the corn has been admitting to a lie or being caught in a false falsehood. I will say, I looked up to verify who all these people were and that they were actually in Congress at the time and they were, I mean, so there's validity. These were all the actual people from, from Congress that were talking at the time. So the origin was 1828 according to that story in 1839 we see it out of the Daily Picayune in New Orleans, "we were certain it was not Dutch and was an error saying it was scotch and we acknowledge the corn". We see it again. It just a year later, 1840 and the daily pennant out of St Louis. July 14th issue, "David Johnson acknowledged the corn and said that he was drunk." I've never acknowledged the corn about being drunk. But can you imagine trying to say the word acknowledge while you were drunk? Like if you were in the moment acknowledging it. <Drunken inaudible slurring> and they're all like, yeah, you're drunk, we know. In 1842, in the spirit of times that of Philadelphia, March 16th, "your honor, I confess the corn, I was royally drunk". Are we seeing a pattern here?
Dan:                                     08:29                    We do see it occasionally used to admit that someone was drunk, but they're saying I was lying to you. I was drunk. Not... You couldn't just admit that you couldn't just confess the corn and then they would know you meant you were drunk. And then 1846 out of the New York Herald, June 27th, "the evening mirror very naively, comes out and acknowledges the corn" Which I love that because I do that. The I get, the more I look at it in a, uh, a mirror and I'm like, Ugh, who's that old guy?
Shauna:                               09:00                    Ah, that's funny.
Dan:                                     09:02                    The Weekly Comet out of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and this is July 23rd, 1884. "So many things have been done of late to entitle us to metropolitan notoriety that it is high time. Our contemporary should acknowledge the corn. I believe not a very spacious city hall have sufficient dimensions to contain the number one engine. "
Dan:                                     09:21                    This is a frustration here where we're trying to use tax dollars to build a thing for the ffire brigade. And they are, the author is unhappy in this editorial for that. The daily dispatch, 1865, March 28th, this is out of Richmond, Virginia. "There's no use in blazing up and calling him names and threatening blood and thunder. We may as well confess the corn. The old gentleman has been too smart for us and we are mere children in his hands. Wonder why he would charge us to take us back to his family and educate us until we'd arrive at years of discretion." And I like this because threatening blood and thunder is a phrase that I want to look more into but haven't yet.
Shauna:                               10:03                    I really like that.
Dan:                                     10:03                    So, uh, and I, it's very fun to see how many idioms and phrases like that are used in, um, in print.
Dan:                                     10:12                    You know, so this case, we have threatening blood and thunder. Blazing up, which of course is not what that means these days. And then confess the corn all in just two sentences.
Dan:                                     10:24                    From company that deals in ice distribution, which was a huge concept in the late 18 hundreds before, you know, we had freezers and such. This is the Grand Rapids Herald out of Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1892 July 2nd this is a, an advertisement for the AB Knolson company. "We do sleep. Yes we do. But it is in the witching hour of night. How exhaustive it must be to never sleep. One must naturally get very tired. We must acknowledge the corn, but nevertheless we want your ice trade, your coal trade." Also Limes, Cement and other things. Nice. Yeah. So obviously at some point they'd used an advertisement campaign saying that we never sleep. So now they're kind of turning that and use the phrase, the witching hour, which I love.
Dan:                                     11:07                    And saying that, that we acknowledge the corn, wheat, we do sleep, but it's when you're asleep too, so it's no big deal. And then out of the Day Book, which is Chicago, Illinois, October 3rd, 1916. "But why do teachers ask such questions, why not eliminate all prejudices and acknowledge the corn even if you're wrong?" So this was a, a person who is talking about who those that are teaching, uh, and are not showing, basically they're accusing them of being pro German or pro immigrant. Because even back then teachers were still a bastion for equality and fighting for like, no, we should treat our, all of our students the same. And of course when you have privilege, any sort of equality can look like, uh, discrimination against you or you feel like it is anyway. So a, in this case, uh, many of the white people in the community were very frustrated that the teachers were, were using, were, you know, treating the immigrants the same and there were German immigrants in the area. So they were saying they were pro German anti-American in this case. So they're just saying, well why don't they just admit that they're wrong. Well, because they're not wrong. That's why they're not going to do that. You racist.
Shauna:                               12:18                    That's so funny. You know, my family, um, arrive, well, part of my family arrived here in the United States from Germany around this time actually. Uh, well I was not far. Uh, but yeah, like, uh, over the ocean in a boat, you know, that whole gig. Uh, but you know, nobody looks at me and calls me German these days.
Dan:                                     12:38                    Yeah, that's fair. Yeah, that's a whole nother story that we could talk about, but it's a bit of a bummer. So we won't...
Shauna:                               12:45                    Okay, fair enough.
Dan:                                     12:46                    So this phrase seems to have fallen out of favor in the late 19 teens with only a few examples in the 1920s. And most of those being advertising puns and they're directed at an older audience like this one in 1925 from the evening star out of Washington DC that it was, "She hated to acknowledge the corn. So goes the old saying and few indeed like to confess the corn." And this is a, um, advertisement for a cream that you put on corns of, on the feet.
Shauna:                               13:16                    Oh yeah.
Dan:                                     13:17                    Specifically, it's looking at a slightly older audience and using a phrase that the older audience would understand, but maybe the younger people wouldn't get, but that's all right. They're not trying to sell to the younger people.
Shauna:                               13:27                    Fair enough. Today's show is sponsored by our patrons. According to the Oxford English dictionary since the 13 hundreds the word patron has meant a person standing in a role of oversight, protection, or sponsorship to another patron comes from the Latin word for father, Pater, then becoming Patronus, meaning champion or protector, then to patron, meaning one who sponsors something like a patron of the arts. Leonardo da Vinci had patrons like Medici and Caesier Borgia. Bunny trails has similarly awesome patrons, including Charlie Moore, Pat Rowe, and Mary Lopez. We'd also like to thank our newest patron, Ernest Olson. If you want to become a patron of bunny trails and get cool perks like early access to episodes, behind the scenes content, monthly mini-episodes and more, you can visit us at or you can find links to it at
Dan:                                     14:27                    so the next phrase I want to talk about is to see the elephant. This refers to gaining experience of the world, oftentimes at significant costs.
Shauna:                               14:35                    Ah, Gotcha. I thought maybe it was like a some sort of rejoinder to like the elephant in the room or you know.
Dan:                                     14:40                    No, but they did come out of common root experiences. Oh cool. So this phrase has been used as see the lion since the 16 hundreds like this example from John Smith. In The true travels, adventures and observations of Captaine J. Smith 1630. "After, one Master John Bull.., with divers of his friends, went to see the Lyons" In this case they're talking about the lions in the tower of London because people kept lions there. So you went to go see the lions and have that specific experience. To see the elephant seems to come into popular use in the 18 hundreds the Oxford English dictionary has the first attestation in 1835 by Augustus Baldwin Longstreet in Georgia scenes, characters, incidents and etc in the first half of the republic by a native Georgian.
Shauna:                               15:31                    Okay.
Dan:                                     15:33                    Augustus is obviously not following the rule of thumb that we have now set and should be retroactively applied to all books of the 18 hundreds that you can have a long name or a long title. But my goodness, you can't have, yeah,
Shauna:                               15:46                    yeah. What are you doing? Augustus?
Dan:                                     15:48                    In his book he writes, "That's sufficient, as Tom Haynes said when he saw the elephant. " In this case and many outside of the war, see, the elephant was to see life the world or the sites as of a large city or to get the experience of life or to gain knowledge by experience. Gotcha. So in 1857, work by Orlando White in Quinland or varieties in American life, "the Fox and crow is one of the most famous sites in New York. It has never missed by the country moon or the foreigner who is searching after the elephant." Huh, cool. As early as the Mexican American war, See the elephant was specifically used to mean to see battle among soldiers and military members. This was a common phrase during the civil war as well continuing at least until the Vietnam War. As Tom Dalzell wrote in Vietnam War Slang, A dictionary on historical principles.
Dan:                                     16:38                    He has an entry that says "Elephant: combat. Usually in the phrase seeing the elephant meaning to have experienced combat." Okay, and this makes sense from an intuitive standpoint. See the elephant is about gaining life experiences and when you are in a war, the biggest experience is going to combat, especially wars like you know the civil war and Vietnam and world wars one and two. When a large portion of the people fighting in those wars that they did, they did not sign up for that. Like that was not theier thing. They might've been part of the militia, but they weren't, they weren't looking at as the military as a career path or something. They were drafted or forced into it because of what in the case of the civil war an invasion of the homeland or uh, you know, world war one or two where, you know, we had to do something.
Shauna:                               17:26                    Yeah. Well and definitely a lot of them, like the civil war at least I noticed a lot of them signed up to avoid, uh, being the draft or things like that because they continue to give extra benefits if you signed up on your own.
Dan:                                     17:38                    Right. Yeah. Well I would argue that whether you were enlisted to avoid the draft or you were drafted, you were still coerced into it. And while that's not necessarily a bad thing, don't mean to imply that, uh, you know, fighting for your country and for people's rights is a bad thing. I'm very happy that people are willing to do that. Um, but I would say it's disingenuous to say that if your draft number was five and so you went ahead and enlisted. That's uh, that that was a anything but a coerced move that was a, Oh, I've now seen what this looks like and I guess of these options, this is what I'm doing. They paid during the civil war, they paid bounties is what they called it to get people to sign up. So basically what we would call now a signing bonus, they call it a bounty.
Dan:                                     18:23                    There's even a civil war movie actually called seeing the Elephant and American civil war movie “Seeing The Elephant an Indie film feature centerpiece of the popular Wisconsin tourist attraction, The Fiery Trial Exhibit, which runs daily at the Civil War Museum in Kenosha. A term the soldiers used to describe active duty, Seeing The Elephant, manipulates the senses and delivers its experience in the round, historically, close up. The newest permanent addition to The Fiery Trial exhibit, Seeing The Elephant, is an exceptional presentation and a Wisconsin attraction that is NOT to be missed!".
Shauna:                               18:56                    That sounds pretty cool actually.
Dan:                                     18:57                    Yeah. If I ever make my way to Kenosha, Wisconsin, I'll definitely check out the civil war museum there. Outside of the war though, the phrase continues to be used in the general life experience way in The Weekly Roundabout, which was out of Frankfort, Kentucky, April 17th, 1880. "Logan McKee went to Louisville Tuesday morning to see the elephant. He saw it and says it was a big one and got home later part of the week." This is a perfect example of our, this is a perfect example of our natural need to share. This is a piece from a whole page of status updates, uh, posted in the newspaper. So I just want people to remember this whenever we talk about social media. Social media is just our current form of sharing. We used to do that in so many ways and looking through old newspapers tells me two things about current society that is no different than past society. 1., we are bitterly, bitterly, bitterly rude and disgusting in our politics in this country since the beginning of this country and 2. social media is not changing much, we literally have communicated by posting inane and banal things for the entirety of our written existence. We just did it newspapers before and now we do it, you know, then we did it on chat rooms and now we're doing it in, um, social media posts on walls and you know, peoples spaces and things like that.
Dan:                                     20:24                    All right. So back to this, another example from Frankfort, Kentucky. This time in the Frankfurt Roundabout, June 16th, 1894 " An elephant was to swim the Kentucky River. And the frankfurters were anxious to see how the specimen of the pachyderm tribe would perform the aquatic feat. Judge Nuttle was among the number who wanted to see it, and he announced that the court would adjourn for that purpose. There was an important case in court and the proposition was objected to, but the judge was inflexible and heedless of all protestation adjourned to the court to see the elephant swim the river. So they say.".
Shauna:                               20:55                    That's hilarious to me.
Dan:                                     20:59                    Yes, and this is from a response to that where they say "there's no, they say business about judge nettle adjourning the court in this city so that he could go down and see the elephants when the river, but it's an actual fact. He gave his a reason that he was an old man and might not have another opportunity of witnessing such a site. Therefore he did not care to miss it.".
Shauna:                               21:19                    I mean like a part of me is like good for you, Judge. Yeah.
Dan:                                     21:22                    They wanted to keep, you know, doling out justice, but the judge was all like, there's an elephant and you know the phrase, see the elephant. I want to see the elephant. Literally. So we're going to adjourn so I can go see this. And we see it again, maybe the last time that I saw it in print was 1907 in the Idaho Republican out of Blackfoot, Idaho. This was the August 16th edition. "Mr and Mrs Wilco went to Idaho falls on Thursday of last week to see the elephant." Another example of a status update that was posted in a newspaper. They really start to fall out of favor in written communications in the early 1920s.
Dan:                                     21:59                    Today, the only place we really see the phrase now is when speaking of seeing combat, and even that's relatively rare, but it is still used in, in some military circles. Gotcha. Okay. Moving on now, Chris Muscato, a professor of history at the University of Northern Colorado writes of soldiers during the civil war. "They had to be fit as a fiddle at all times in good shape because they never knew when they would see the elephant or witness battle." So we talked about seeing the elephant, but now I want to transition to fit as a fiddle. So fit as a fiddle according to the Oxford English dictionary means "in good form or condition". And the OED shows it being first attested in the early 16 hundreds. So similar phrases at the same time, including fine as a farthing fiddle and fine as a fiddle. But even though the phrase was around beforehand, it was such a common term heard during the civil war that we'd be remiss not to talk about it here.
Dan:                                     22:52                    Uh, and in the book, Great Civil War Projects You Can Build Yourself by Maxine Anderson. She writes, "know your civil war slang". This is one of those little pop out boxes, you know, outside of the print. So she's got stuff that she's writing about and then there's just this little thing on the side because she used a phrase and she said, "Know your civil war slang: fit as a fiddle, meaning in good shape, healthy, feeling good". We also see it defined in Life In Civil War America by Michael Varhola, "fit as a fiddle: in good shape".
Dan:                                     23:19                    So another interesting fact from that same book though is a statement on the phrase "war is hell". This is what a Michael Varella writes, "So too many words we use to describe the events of the civil war have their origins in the years following the conflict. For example, Union Major General William Tecumseh Sherman is widely known as having stated war is hell. However, he did not say this until 1879 some 14 years the war ended.".
Shauna:                               23:46                    Oh Wow.
Dan:                                     23:46                    Yeah. So I've heard that war is hell, you know, came from the civil war, but it just came from a civil war general who said it after the civil war.
Shauna:                               23:54                    Gotcha. That's kind of interesting. But yeah, I mean...
Dan:                                     23:56                    Right. Uh, same with the phrase, uh, live free or die for death is not the worst of evils. And that's a major general John Stark. And he who is, I am a, I am a direct relation. Um, but anyway, so John John Stark, uh, had wrote that actually in a, he couldn't attend a gathering of his soldiers, far after the revolutionary wars, oftentimes attested to being a revolutionary war phrase, but it is not, and it was in a letter that he wrote to his troops because he was too ill and, uh, convalescent to be able to attend a reunion party with them.
Dan:                                     24:33                    So he wrote a letter and that's, it was in that letter where he wrote that phrase, live free or die for death is not the worst of evils.
Shauna:                               24:39                    That's really interesting.
Dan:                                     24:41                    Yeah. All right. So even the Gettysburg military park, the and the National Park Service, uh, getting the action with their booklet, the life of a civil war soldier, which is a student field program. Uh, in fact, we have a copy of it, uh, here. They have a civil war slang section in the booklet, which has numerous common phrases at the time, including fit as a fiddle defined as in good shape or healthy. Cool. So these are just a few examples of fit as a fiddle being used during the civil war. We've already done this phrase once, uh, so I didn't want to spend a whole lot of time on it, but because it was used so often during the civil war, I definitely wanted to include a couple of other things I found specific to that.
Shauna:                               25:16                    Yeah, it's nice to highlight those.
Dan:                                     25:18                    I'm going to read a little piece from a paper by Jay Monhagan called civil war slang and humor written in 1957 and I quoted this earlier as well, but here's another section. "A great many of the slang expressions of a hundred years ago have changed a little but are still recognizable. Thus, when a modern soldier says 'liquidate" a Civil War veteran would say "salivate." To squeal on a companion was called "blowing on him.".
Dan:                                     25:42                    Hehe. That's not what that means now.
New Speaker:                    25:42                    "The Civil War expression "to run against a stump" is more commonly worded today as "to run against a snag." In like manner, a studious cadet at West Point in the 1850's was called a "dig" instead of the more modem "grind." ... The "grapevine," as understood in Civil War days, has survived, although latter day service men prefer "latrine humor" or "scuttle-butt."
Dan:                                     26:07                    And here is a note from Chris Muscato, at the University of Northern Colorado Imagine that you're in an army camp. People are shouting for various objects, and often they'll use slang terms to describe daily items. A soldier looking for bark juice is hunting for liquor, maybe to wash down those sheet iron crackers, the hardtack soldiers ate. After all, a cup of rio (coffee) could be scarce as hen's teeth when rations were low. Others soldiers might be preparing for battle, filling the beehive (knapsack) with hornets (bullets). Be careful if someone mentions having an Arkansas toothpick, however; that's just a really big knife. That person might be loaded for bear, armed to the teeth and ready to pick a fight.
Dan:                                     26:46                    And I will put this here, just as a side note, the sheet iron crackers, right. So a note about the hardtack, the Gettysburg National Battlefield Museum has an actual piece of hardtack on display from the battle in 1863 so it was picked up shortly after the battle and had been preserved and there were a lot of places in Gettysburg cause the whole town was involved in the battle.
Dan:                                     27:09                    But there are a lot of places that people were using as kind of like tourist things. And so they, this had been shown off and was eventually donated to the museum. So there's no mold on it. There's no evidence of degradation. Uh, it's like Twinkies for the civil war era.
Shauna:                               27:23                    Yeah that's awesome. Ewww.
Dan:                                     27:23                    They'll last forever and it'll give you calories I guess. But I'll pass, I'm going to put it, I'm going to put a picture on the, and so you can take a look at it, but it's very interesting. I can totally see why they call them sheet iron crackers too. Cause if they are as hard as they look for, Huh. Yeah. I mean it's in the name. Hardtack yeah. Well, I love phrases that come out of wars because there tends to be a mixing of many different backgrounds and dialects and these are, you know, from people spending time together, people that would have never spent time together on their own, but now they're all thrust into a common situation.
Dan:                                     27:57                    And that leads to a lot of melding of languages. But despite the language changes that happened during times of war, we have to remember that for those men and women language was the least of their thoughts. The American civil war was the deadliest war in American history with various accounts, but 620 to 720,000 deaths, and that's just shy of all the deaths and all the other wars America's ever fought in combined. Slavery was at the heart of the war. And as a result of the war, slavery was outlawed in the United States. Brothers killed brothers, fathers killed sons. It was not a pretty picture, but it is part of the American history. We must remember that whenever a powerful group tries to take away basic dignity from another group of humans, there are still other humans that will fight for those rights, and if we don't stand up to protect those kinds of human rights during times of peace, it will inevitably lead to violence.
Dan:                                     28:51                    Well, that about wraps us up for today. Thank you for joining us. Don't forget to find us on your favorite podcasting app and leave a review. If you have a suggestion for an idiom or another turn of phrase or you just want to chat, you can catch us on social media, mostly on Twitter, @bunnytrailspod or on Patreon at Of course, you can get links to everything we do at
Shauna:                               29:15                    if you've enjoyed this episode, you might check out another podcast that talks about history, Cutting Class Podcast. It's a history podcast and a comedy podcast. So a history comedy podcast told by two high school teachers every Wednesday they bring you funny, amazing, unbelievable stories from the past to amuse and delight you for absolutely free. And if you don't like it, they'll give you your money back. Guaranteed. Actually, I really like those guys. They're awesome. Check them out at or wherever you get your podcasts. Thanks again for joining us. We'll talk to you again next week. And until then, remember...
Together:                           29:54                    Words belong to their users.

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